Headache is one of the most common complaints in the society. The rate of those with headache complaints reaches 90 percent in the society. 90 percent of all headaches are migraine and tension headaches.
The International Headache Association has classified headaches into 14 main groups and hundreds of subgroups. Headaches that occur directly with a headache and are not related to another disease are primary headaches. These are migraine, tension type, and cluster headaches. Secondary headaches are headaches that are seen at a rate of 10 percent and occur during the course of diseases such as cerebrovascular diseases, nervous system diseases, brain tumors, eye diseases, sinusitis, meningitis, depending on a certain disease.
Usually the pain is on one side of the head
Pain is throbbing, moderate or severe
Nausea, vomiting occurs
Comes in crises (attacks)
Pain lasts 4 to 72 hours
Visual disturbances occur at the onset of pain (with aura type)
Pain increases with head movements and physical activity
Being disturbed by light and sound
How many types of migraine are there?
It is generally divided into two groups. Predefined migraine with aura and migraine without aura. Only 10 percent of migraines have aura.
Aura are symptoms encountered in pro-symptom migraine. Most of these symptoms are vision related. The patient reports seeing bright lights, zig-zag lines, or blurred vision, loss of vision in an area or region. In addition, numbness in the arms and legs, dizziness and speech disorders are also seen. It takes 20-30 minutes and then the pain begins.
Environmental factors create an activation in the brain in genetically predisposed individuals. This activation makes the brain vessels dilate and chemical substances are released. These stimulate the nerves and cause pain.
There is a high probability of migraine in close relatives of migraineurs. Genetic impairment has only been shown in some specific types of migraine.
In 10 to 15 percent of all migraineurs, the illness begins in childhood. The rate of migraine in childhood is 3 – 5 percent. This figure rises above 10 percent after puberty. Children with sleep disorders, sleeping difficulties, unreasonable vomiting, allergies, and motion sickness are more likely to develop migraines in the future.
This is related to the hormonal regulation of women. Migraine attacks become rare in women in menopause. During pregnancy, migraine attacks decrease between the 3rd and 9th months.
Simple pain relievers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ergotamine drugs and triptans are used in pain treatment. If painkillers and ergotamine drugs are used frequently, they cause persistent pain and sometimes they can lead to more serious side effects.
Anti-emetic drugs are given for nausea and vomiting during attacks. Painkillers should be taken at the beginning of the attack. In order to accelerate the absorption, the anti-nausea drug should be taken before the painkiller.